Month: June 2022

Male Infertility: Lack Of Testosterone Can Be The Cause

Male Infertility: Lack Of Testosterone Can Be The Cause

For many couples, the longed-for desire to have children does not materialize. A long-held misconception that only women are affected by infertility is still widespread. In fact, however, the physical causes of unwanted childlessness are shared by both partners in around 40% of couples.

Read also: Supporting Healthy Family Relationships

When is a fertility disorder present?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), infertility or sterility is to be diagnosed if pregnancy persists for 24 months despite regular and unprotected sexual intercourse. In addition, a distinction is made between two other types of fertility disorders.

If there is no pregnancy after six months despite regular sexual intercourse during the fertile period, then there is “slight subfertility”. This is the case for around 20% of couples who wish to have children. About 10% of all couples with a desire to have children that are not fulfilled for longer than 12 cycles suffer from “significant subfertility”.

Sperm quality can be adversely affected by various factors such as an unhealthy lifestyle and exposure to environmental pollutants. In addition, organic or hormonal causes, such as a lack of testosterone, can also be the cause of poor sperm quality. In this regard, men can consult a urologist or andrologist.

Clarification of male infertility at the doctor

Some examinations can provide information if male infertility is suspected:

  • Spermiogramm
  • Ultrasound examination of the testicle
  • hormone analysis
  • If necessary, karyotyping to detect genetic abnormalities

Spermiogramm

The spermiogram is used to determine the number, mobility, and shape of the sperm. According to the WHO, a normal spermiogram (normozoospermia) is characterized by an ejaculate volume of ≥ 1.5 ml, a pH value of ≥ 7.2, and a sperm concentration of ≥ 15 million spermatozoa per milliliter.

Other features include a total sperm count of ≥ 39 million spermatozoa and a proportion of ≥ 32% progressively motile sperm per ejaculate. In addition to good motility, the morphology must be normal in ≥ 4% of the sperm. The proportion of living sperm should be at least 50%. If no normozoospermia can be detected, it is important to find out why, for example, there is a reduced sperm count or sperm motility is restricted.

Ultrasound examination of the testicle and testicular vessels

Diseases of the testicles are among the most important causes of sterility in men. An ultrasound can be used to determine changes in the testicular tissue, such as testicular tumors or a varicocele, which, like other testicular diseases, can be the reason for unwanted childlessness.

This also includes underdeveloped testicles, undescended testicles, and testicular inflammation (orchitis). Men with testicular damage of this type often have reduced testosterone production and as a result, can suffer from what is known as primary hypogonadism. This is characterized by low testosterone levels combined with high LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) levels.

Hormone analysis to clarify hormonal causes

In addition to organic causes, hormonal imbalances that impair spermiogenesis can also be the reason for unwanted childlessness. These include:

  • Thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism)
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Hypogonadism

An overactive or underactive thyroid gland results in reduced sperm concentration, mobility, and altered morphology. A prolactinoma, a tumor of the anterior pituitary gland, can be the cause of increased production of prolactin and thus hyperprolactinemia. Secondary hypogonadism is often the result. However, it can also be triggered by certain medications, marijuana abuse, excessive alcohol consumption, and various diseases (e.g. obesity or type 2 diabetes).

According to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology (EAU), men have hypogonadism if the following criteria apply: First, the total testosterone level must be below 12, 1 nmol/L or the serum-free testosterone level is below 243 pmol/L and second, the man must be suffering from persistent symptoms suggestive of testosterone deficiency. In this case, men could be subjected to testosterone therapy with recommendations of the best supplements for testosterone.

What do the guidelines recommend for hypogonadism and the desire to have children?

According to EAU guidelines, hypogonadism can be easily treated with exogenous testosterone intake using testosterone preparations. However, it should be noted that testosterone therapy is contraindicated in hypogonadal men who wish to have children.

This can be explained by the fact that testosterone administration would strongly inhibit the FSH secretion required for spermiogenesis due to the negative feedback in hormone regulation. As a result, sperm production would drop even further. Therefore, treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in combination with FSH treatment should be considered in male hypogonadism with concomitant infertility, particularly in men with low gonadotropins (secondary hypogonadism).

Treatment with hCG alone can result in FSH suppression, further reducing testosterone production through negative feedback. This form of therapy is not recommended for the long-term therapy of male hypogonadism, since there is still insufficient information on therapeutic and undesirable side effects. An exception is the indication for fertility treatment. [6]

 

When Should Parents Allow Their Daughters To Put On Make-Up?

When Should Parents Allow Their Daughters To Put On Make-Up?

Young Girl Wearing Make Up

 

Most of the women I see on the street walk around the world with make-up on. Some more, some less. But by the 9th grade at the latest, every girl knows what a concealer is and what you use the highlighter for. And YouTube make-up tutorials are already known in elementary school… not to mention permanent eyeliners (visit https://www.foreverstudios.co.uk/pmu/eyeliner/ for more info).

This raises the following question for me:

When should children be allowed to put on make-up?

The make-up is everywhere!

Make-up is an omnipresent part of the world in today’s world. He is in almost every household and accompanies us every step of the way. We see advertising of make-up on TV, on advertising columns and on the stack of magazines during visits to the doctor. Even when shopping for drugstores, a whole wall full of make-up kills us. Is it even possible to escape make-up?

Social pressure when everyone else is already putting on make-up

I am the absolute late bloomer when it comes to make-up. My parents were against me putting on make-up because they thought it would ruin my natural beauty. I, on the other hand, felt trapped in a quandary.

If everyone does it, you quickly become an outsider if you don’t join. These can be banal things. If all other girls already wear a bra or have a period beforehand, girls often have a feeling of otherness.

With make-up, however, this is such a thing, because you do not have to wait for a physical development. You can make up everything that has a face!

Is there any point in parents forbidding their children to put on make-up?

As I said, my parents weren’t thrilled with the idea that I would put on makeup, even though I was already 14/15. Sometimes I was allowed to – on special occasions such as birthdays or the like. But it was taboo to go to school with make-up on!

Unfortunately, bans rarely bring anything to pubertal teenagers. Of course, I did it anyway. Early in the morning I put on make-up downstairs in the guest toilet and was the first to go to the door so that no one saw me. It wasn’t much, just a little mascara and lipstick. After school, I put on make-up with a few make-up wipes. That’s how I did it – for about half a year.

 

ALSO READ: Smart Parenting Tips for Your Child’s Oral Health

 

Is there a “too early” make-up?

It is not uncommon for me to meet 10-year-old girls in my environment who try their hand at lip gloss and blush. The thought “too early” comes up in me instinctively, but is it really? After all, I don’t want them to do the same secrecy as I did back then. Nowadays I have the feeling that “everything” starts much earlier anyway.

Show them how to put on make-up!

What do you think of it when you, the parents, teach the kids how to handle make-up properly? How to use the Eyliner and with what swing to apply the mascara?

Unfortunately, I still have some very embarrassing photos in which I painted my eyes very dark and I had a bit like the guitarist of a punk rock band. I would have liked someone to show me how the rabbit runs!

When should children be allowed to put on make-up?

There is probably no right answer to this. After all, adults also put on make-up. It’s probably best for parents to put themselves in their children’s shoes. The question of “why” usually explains almost everything.

If you are strictly against it for various reasons, then you absolutely have to teach the children in a neutral way. Fobing them off with a “because I say it” probably won’t stop them. I would also suggest that you and you carefully approach the make-up. In this case, the kids can only make up discreetly for the time being, before they later become “more colorful”!

 

American Children Have Poor Cardiovascular Fitness Due to Lack of Physical Activities

American Children Have Poor Cardiovascular Fitness Due to Lack of Physical Activities

A 2020 report published by the American Heart Association revealed that almost sixty percent of American children have poor Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CRF is actually a measure that indicates the overall strength of the heart, blood circulation and lungs in children. The report also stated that a major contributor to the low CRF in children is the lack or fewer engagement in physical activities. While the past two years were not ideal for children to be active in physical games or sports, fitness experts recommend that even if children have no other choice but to stay home, they should at least get into the habit of stretching their body.

 

In contrast, related studies about children with healthy CRF indicated that they have better academic achievements because they have clearer thinking, have a higher sense of self-esteem and satisfaction, as well as stronger mental health. However, the current low CRF has been observed not only in American youth but globally, ever since it went on a downward trend in the 1980s.

Now more than ever, children in well-off countries are more sedentary than the children of previous generations, in line with the advent of the Internet of things, and mobile gaming. Prior to the COVID-19 studies children already preferred using their smartphones and electronic gadgets for entertainment and recreation.
In recent meta analysis, it was revealed that low CRFs are more prevalent in younger children than in teens, who more or less have been channelling their physical activities through dancing.
Nowadays, parents are encouraged to include their children in stretching regimen to help their kids grow up living a healthier life.

Stretching Exercises for Children to Improve Their Muscle Strength and Flexibility

Stretching are lighter forms of exercises as they are often used as preparatory activities for more strenuous exercises. The goal is to loosen up the joints and muscles, which may have tightened due to long hours of being asleep in bed or of sitting in front of a gaming console.

The actions you take to stretch your body might not be appropriate for a kid because your body has different levels of muscle strength and even muscle weakness. Moreover, stretching helps improve blood circulation, which reduces the stress on joints and muscles.

Recommended Stretching Exercises for Kids

The following are stretching activities that kids might not be able to perform instantly with great accuracy. Through constant practice, they will experience improvements and greater ease in achieving flexibility.

A toe touch stretch taken from a standing position that will have a child bend over to reach his or her toes.

Neck half circle stretches that start with touching This stretch for children starts by making the right ear touch the right shoulder then roll their head chin to chest to perform the left ear-left shoulder stretch.

Shoulder circles are performed by simultaneously shrugging and rotating shoulders forward at first and downwards on the next rounds.

Arm circle stretches will have children extending thei arms on both sides and parallel to their shoulders. Using their hands, the children will draw circles starting with small ones that later grow into large circles.

Side bend stretches starts with standing up straight with arms placed outside each thigh. The child will them move one hand toward the outside of the knee by bending sidewards, which he or she might bit be able to do successfully at first. Continue doing the stretching exercise alternately on the left side.